EDU502: Understanding the Learner


Human development and its educational implications: growth and development: meaning, difference and importance for teachers; principles of development; factors influencing growth and development.


Heredity and Environment: Its role in determining individual difference; developmental stages and tasks; development during early, late childhood and adolescence: characteristics, factors influencing and educational implications with respect to physical, psychomotor, intellectual, language, emotional, social, moral and value development.


Issues and concerns of adolescent students: physical and health, emotional & social issues, social-cultural diversity, adverse life experiences, identity vs role confusion; adolescent cognition and its effects on adjustment, need and importance of adolescence education, significance of life skill education for adolescence, role of schools for the balanced personality of adolescent.


Socio- cultural factors influencing cognition and learning in adolescents with respect to their school, community, family and religion


Learner in different learning environment: concept of marginalization with emphasis on gender inequalities, inclusive setting, multi- culturalism.


Individual difference in learner: individual difference in Physco-motor skill, personality, learning style and cognitive preferences.


Learning: process and characteristics of learning; factors influencing learning and laws of learning.


Theories of learning: Pavlov’s classical conditioning, Thorndike’s connectionism, skinner operant conditioning and their educational implications.


Attitude: meaning, types, determinants and theoretical perspective of attitude formation; value: meaning, types, formation of values; study habit: meaning, types, ways of developing effective study.


Self – concept: meaning, components, characteristics and dimensions of self-concept; self-esteem: meaning, types and ways to build self-esteem in students


Social emotional development: meaning, importance, stages and milestone in social emotional development ; interest: meaning, types, importance and factors affecting interest of student; aptitude: meaning and types of aptitude.


Intelligence: concept; Gardner’s multiple intelligence: concept, features and application; learning style: concept and type of learning style.


Motivation: meaning, kinds of motivation, needs, drives, homeostats, measurement of motivation and principles of motivation.


Mental Health and Hygiene: meaning, characteristics; mental, personality, neurotic disorder and psychotic disorder; defense mechanism.


Memory: meaning, types and measurement of memory, techniques of effective memorization; forgetting: meaning, types, curve of forgetting and theories of forgetting.


Behavior Problem: truancy, lying, stealing, tantrum; drug addiction: meaning, causes and remedial measures.


Tools for assessment of individual and intra individual difference in learners: psychological test, observation schedules, inventories and checklists.


Techniques for assessment of individual and intra individual difference in learners: anecdotal records, cumulative records, sociometry, interview, achievement and diagnostic test. 


Facilitating holistic development of learner: self-regulated learning: meaning and importance of self-regulated learning; distinguish self-directed and self-regulated learning; self-efficacy: meaning, sources and theory of self-efficacy, ways to improve self-efficacy.


Role of teacher in different learning environment settings based on cognitive abilities and affective domain and their implications for catering to individual variations in view of difference rather than deficit.